Knowledge Base Inventory

Knowledge Base Inventory lists all relevant methods & tools, data & portals, articles and reports, documentation, and legislation that the MICA Knowledge Base offers. You can filter the inventory using the MICA domain concepts, list of commodities, and others.

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Different methods are needed to propagate ignorance and variability

Description: Ferson, S. and Ginzburg, L. (1996). Different methods are needed to propagate ignorance and variability.

Guidelines for Preparing Mine Closure Plans

Description: Australian government (2015). Guidelines for Preparing Mine Closure Plans.

Serious Gaming Method

Description: A ‘serious’ game is a competitive exercise between two or more parties that has pre-determined objectives and that evolves according to a set of rules, akin to a game of chess. The players introduce intuition and psychology and thus a stochastic element into the decision-making process.

ANR EXTRADE project website (Recovery of REE from permanent magnets in WEEE)

Description: Le projet EXTRADE a pour objectif de développer de nouvelles filières de valorisation des aimants permanents à terres rares (APTR) présents dans les Déchets des Equipements Electriques et Electroniques (D3E or WEEE) en ciblant les 3 types d’équipements que sont i) les disques durs d’ordinateurs, ii) les haut-parleurs des matériels audio et vidéo et iii) les petits moteurs électriques présents dans les TIC (Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication) et les PAM (Petits Appareils Managers).

Cryogenic ball milling. A key for elemental analysis of plastic-rich automotive shredder residue

Description: End-of-life vehicles have become an environmental and sustainability issue in most developed countries, and require sophisticated organic- and inorganic-elemental analyses to evaluate the efficiency of post-shredder technologies applied to automotive shredder residue. The difficulties of milling such heterogeneous material, especially when plastic-rich, have to be overcome to allow such chemical analyses.

Regional Heavy Mineral Sampling

Description: Heavy mineral sampling is the process of collecting that part of a sample medium that has the highest specific gravity. Regional studies are conducted as part of geochemical prospecting programmes in mineral exploration, in orientation and other studies.

Barteková, E. and Kemp, R. 2016. National strategies for securing a stable supply of rare earths in different world regions.

Description: The present paper explains why different world regions responded differently to the global problem of securing stable supply of critical minerals, in particular of rare earths. The paper is based on a comparative political economy framework and examines the extent to which distinct national policy styles, national interests, resource endowment and historical experience in tackling supply risk shaped the different policy choices. The overall findings show that despite their similar objectives, strategies undertaken by various regions tend to differ in their foci. Whereas Europe opts for a policy dialogue with resource-rich countries, Japan and the United States have a more hands-on approach in research and development initiatives. Australia's and China's policies instead, focus on development of domestic mining activities and on resource protection.

Scenario Development Method

Description: Trend scenario development is a common tool used by governments and their supporting agencies. A key aspect is making rational and well-founded assumptions that have to be clearly documented. The purpose is to deduct envelopes for futures, based on the extrapolation and aggregation of single variables.

Criticality on the international scene: Quo vadis?

Description: Dewulf J., Blengini G.A., Pennington D., Nuss P., Nassar N.T. (2016). Criticality on the international scene: Quo vadis?

Recovery of high-grade iron compounds from slag by enhanced magnetic separation techniques

Description: From this investigation, two flow-sheets of treatment of LD slag are suggested to recover high grade iron material for recycling in metallurgical processes. Calcium and silicon oxide rich product will be directed to the cement industry.

Substitute criticality (Supply risk/Substitution)

Description: It is important to assess the criticality of the substitute itself. If a substitute material is already critical, it might not be readily available as a substitute option.

Geological Methods in Mineral Exploration and Mining.

Description: This practical step-by-step guide describes the key geological field techniques needed by today's exploration geologists involved in the search for metallic deposits. The techniques described are fundamental to the collection, storage and presentation of geological data and their use to locate ore. This book explains the various tasks which the exploration geologist is asked to perform in the sequence in which they might be employed in an actual exploration project. Hints and tips are give. The steps are illustrated with numerous examples drawn from real projects on which the author has worked. The book emphasizes traditional skills and shows how they can be combined effectively with modern technological approaches.

SEA Directive 2001/42/EC

Description: The SEA Directive (Directive 2001/42/EC) transposes the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) adopted by an Extraordinary meeting of the Parties to the Espoo Convention (held on 21 May 2003 during the Ministerial Environment for Europe Conference in Kyiv) in the EU legislation. The Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment augments the Espoo Convention by ensuring that individual Parties integrate environmental assessment into their plans and programmes at the earliest stages, and thus help in laying down the groundwork for sustainable development. The Protocol entered into force on 11 July 2010. The EU ratified the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment on 21 November 2008.

Commodity end uses

Description: Commodity end uses are available in raw materials factsheets

Geopolitical risk

Description: The supply of critical and some non-critical raw materials to the EU is highly concentrated in a few non-EU countries that often show low levels of governance. Because the EU is highly import-dependent for certain raw materials this may lead to unexpected supply disruptions and thus put the EU’s security of supply at risk.

Footprint methods

Description: Description of the Footprint methods.

LCA, LCI, LCIA, LCC: What’s the Difference?

Description: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a multi-step procedure for calculating the lifetime environmental impact of a product or service. LCI is the life cycle inventory, which is the data collection portion of LCA. LCI is the straight-forward accounting of everything involved in the “system” of interest. LCIA is life cycle impact assessment, the “what does it mean” step. In LCIA, the inventory is analyzed for environmental impact. LCI and LCA should not be confused with life cycle costing. LCC is another life cycle approach (i.e, cradle to grave) but it looks at the direct monetary costs involved with a product or service and not environmental impact…

Recycling rate

Description: Recycling as a source of secondary raw materials contributes to the security of supply and helps advance materials circularity in the EU economy. In the 2016 Raw Materials Scoreboard, in the Circular Econom y monitoring framework and in the context of the 2017 list of critical raw materials (CRM) for the EU, the principal recycling indicator is the end-of-life recycling input rate (EOL-RIR). The EOL-RIR equals the ‘input of secondary material to the EU from old scrap to the total input of materials (primary and secondary) and is regarded as a robust measure of recycling’s contribution to meeting materials demand.

Ecoinvent (environmental data)

Description: The ecoinvent database provides well documented process data for thousands of products, helping to make truly informed choices about their environmental impact. The latest version, ecoinvent 3.4, builds on all previous versions of the database.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Description: The IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. Manuals, guides, and other material on statistical practices at the IMF, in member countries, and of the statistical community at large are also available.

Economy Wide Material Flow Accounting

Description: Description of the method of Economy Wide Material Flow Accounting (EW-MFA).ded

System Dynamic Modelling

Description: System dynamics (SD) is a computer-aided method and a quantitative modeling technique. It could be used for describing, modeling, simulating and analyzing dynamically complex (non-linear) issues.

Wild-Cards and Weak Signals

Description: The term ‘wild card’ is used for low-probability events that have a high impact and that were not expected to occur. Wildcard events take the society concerned by surprise and may profoundly change it.

EGDI

Description: EGDI is EuroGeoSurveys’ European Geological Data Infrastructure. It provides access to Pan-European and national geological datasets and services from the Geological Survey Organizations of Europe.

Recycling of automotive shredder residues (ASR) in iron- and steelmaking furnaces

Description: European regulations are about to impose a minimum 95% recycling of end of life vehicles with a 10% maximum energy recovery (Directive 2000/53/EC). Current 75% recycling requires the development of innovative processing for treating certain heterogeneous streams. In particular, the recycling of light post-shredder technology particles (fluff) in iron- and steelmaking is an interesting avenue to explore. More specifically, the use of iron oxide rich streams for their iron content [blast furnaces (BFs)] and plastic rich streams as a reducing agent and/or alternative fuel (electric arc furnaces and BFs) is an industrial challenge. This article describes the preliminary multitechnical characterisation results of streams from an industrial site and discusses the potential for recycling according to the nature of the crippling impurities [polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and metals]...

Geological Map of Albania

Description: Geological Map of Albania in scale 1:200000.

Welcome to BioMineWiki- the free and live knowledge base focused on biohydrometallurgy

Description: Welcome to BioMineWiki- the free and live knowledge base focused on biohydrometallurgy.

Cell Based Associations: A procedure for considering scarce and mixed mineral occurrences in predictive mapping

Description: Tourlière B., Pakyuz-Charrier E., Cassard D., Barbanson L., Gumiaux C. (2015). Cell Based Associations: A procedure for considering scarce and mixed mineral occurrences in predictive mapping.

Limitation of the mining waste production

Description: The volume of mining waste produced (waste-rocks and tailings) depends on the geological characteristics of the ore body, the mineral being mined, the type of mining (underground versus open pit) and the type of mineral processing and as well as the size of the operation…

BGR Geoviewer (UK)

Description: The BGR Geoviewer allows the user to visualize and to combine BGR’s web map services (WMS) based on data of various disciplines. The info (i) for every map contains a link to the Produktcenter, where the relevant geodata are available for download. The offered map data covers Germany and the data are generalized for different scale intervals between 1:200 000 and 1:5 000 000.

Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis (Nuss & Eckelman, 2014)

Description: We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest...

MINATURA2020 – Mineral Deposits of Public Importance (a)

Description: MINATURA2020 (2015). MINATURA2020 – Mineral Deposits of Public Importance. Press release, Brussels, 12 June 2015.

Mineral Certification at the BGR

Description: Mineral Certification at the BGR covers due diligence and ASM formalization in the Great Lakes Region, ASM conflict risks and timeline of relevant BGR projects.

Land use maps of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) type

Description: Land use maps of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) type.

Biodiversity Information System for Europe

Description: Biodiversity Information System for Europe.

Mine closure process (overview of different phases and actions)

Description: What happens to mine sites after a mine is closed? An overview of the different phases and actions of the mine closure process.

Mining Wastes Directive

Description: Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC - Statement by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission.

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92 /43 /EEC of 21 May 1992

Description: COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92 /43 /EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora

Value added

Description: Information and data on Value added related to raw materials is available in raw materials factsheets

Geostatistical Estimates

Description: Geostatistical estimation is a technique based on probability theory that is used to compute regionalized variables, such as the metal content or grade in a deposit.

Raw Materials Scoreboard

Description: The Raw Materials Scoreboard is a cornerstone of the European Union Raw Materials Knowledge Base (EURMKB) and an integral and permanent part of the Raw Materials Information System. The RM Scoreboard presents the best available data and indicators on the main challenges of raw materials production in the EU, along the entire raw materials value chain. The EC released the first edition of the RM Scoreboard in July 2016, and biannual updates are foreseen.

Three-part quantitative assessment method

Description: The three-part method is used in quantitative assessments of undiscovered mineral resources. It produces probabilistic estimates of the amount of metals and ore in undiscovered deposits of selected types

The African Mining Vision

Description: The African Mining Vision (2009): “Transparent, equitable and optimal exploitation of mineral resources to underpin broad-based sustainable growth and socio-economic development”

Sairinen et al.. (2012), Responsible mining: A toolkit for the prevention and mediation of conflicts

Description: This report provides essential lessons and guidance to companies and governments to reduce mining conflicts and to promote responsible mining. Interestingly, the toolkit highlights the fact that every mining challenge is very local but the critical issues related to responsible mining are inherently international

Characterization of raw materials based on supply risk indicators for Europe

Description: The concept of “resource criticality” has recently emerged as a policy priority and research subject, usually referred to the risk of supply disruption for mineral resources, due to economic and geopolitical reasons. Different methodologies for assessing critical raw materials (CRM) have been developed in governmental and research contexts, and the possibility of including the resource security aspect in life cycle assessment (LCA) has been claimed by different authors. The present paper aims at integrating CRM considerations in LCA in order to address socio-economic and strategic aspects related to resource use.

Density estimation for statistics and data analysis, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability

Description: Silverman B.W. (1986). Density estimation for statistics and data analysis, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability.

Biohydrometallurgy

Description: An industrial reality for the treatment of sulphidic ores, tailings and residues.

Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011

Description: Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment Text with EEA relevance

Mining for Closure, Policies and Guidelines for Sustainable Mining Practice and Closure of Mines

Description: United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Development Programme, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (2005). Mining for Closure, Policies and Guidelines for Sustainable Mining Practice and Closure of Mines.

Comparison of mathematical methods of potential modeling

Description: Schaeben H. (2011). Comparison of mathematical methods of potential modeling.

Life cycle indicators for resources, products and waste

Description: EC-JRC (2012) has developed a framework for life cycle based macro-level monitoring indicators which are intended to be used to assess the environmental impact of production, consumption and waste management in the EU27.

Critical Raw Materials

Description: Raw materials are crucial to Europe’s economy. They form a strong industrial base, producing a broad range of goods and applications used in everyday life and modern technologies. Reliable and unhindered access to certain raw materials is a growing concern within the EU and across the globe. To address this challenge, the European Commission has created a list of critical raw materials (CRMs) for the EU, which is subject to a regular review and update. CRMs combine raw materials of high importance to the EU economy and of high risk associated with their supply.

Delphi Surveys

Description: The Delphi method is based on structural surveys and makes use of information from the experience and knowledge of the participants, who are mainly experts. It, therefore, yields both qualitative and quantitative results and draws on exploratory, predictive even normative elements.

Circular Economy

Description: A circular economy aims to keep products, components and materials in use, to prevent waste generation and avoid extracting virgin resources. It does so by a combination of reuse, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing and recycling, aiming at lengthening the life span of applications and keeping the materials in use even after the product life span has ended. The European Commission adopted an ambitious Circular Economy Package, which includes revised legislative proposals on waste to stimulate Europe's transition towards a circular economy which will boost global competitiveness, foster sustainable economic growth and generate new jobs. The European Commission and the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) jointly launched the European Circular Economy Stakeholder Platform. The European Circular Economy Stakeholder Platform will be a network of networks going beyond sectorial activities and highlighting cross-sector opportunities and challenges. The Platform will be a hub

Classical Directive 2014/24/EU

Description: Directive 2014/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on public procurement and repealing Directive 2004/18/EC Text with EEA relevance.

Roskill

Description: Each of Roskill's international reports gives a comprehensive analysis of an individual metal or a mineral market. They cover world production and consumption, the operations of the major producers, end-use market applications, price trends, international trade patterns and forecasts for supply and demand, of over 40 metals and minerals.

Importance for industry

Description: Why CRMs are Economically important? The importance of a raw material to the economy of the Union is assessed by the indicator Economic Importance (EI). This indicator relates to the potential consequences in the event of an inadequate supply of the raw material.

Groothuis F. (2016), New era. New plan. Europe. A fiscal strategy for an inclusive, circular economy, The Ex’tax Project

Description: This study by The Ex’tax Project in cooperation with Deloitte, EY, KPMG Meijburg and PwC examines the impact of a tax shift from labour to consumption and natural resource use. Cambridge Econometrics has modelled the impacts of a tax shift scenario in the period 2016-2020 in 27 Member States of the European Union using the E3ME macro-econometric model.

The bioleaching of sulphide minerals with emphasis on copper sulphides — A review

Description: Watling H.R. (2006). The bioleaching of sulphide minerals with emphasis on copper sulphides — A review.

Life Cycle Assessment and criticality of raw materials: relationship and potential synergies

Description: The security of supply of raw materials is a policy priority for the European Union (EU). In this paper, different research activities undertaken by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC), Sustainability Assessment Unit, and related to Critical Raw Materials (CRM) are briefly described. The potential of Life Cycle Assessment for supporting resource policy needs in business and governance is discussed. Related research activities addressed in this paper include an analysis of impact assessment methods used for the assessment of resources; the Resource Life Cycle Indicators that provide insights into the total environmental pressures of the EU; the identification of potentially relevant requirements for product policies, and the results of the expert workshop “Security of supply and scarcity of raw materials”.

Julienne D. (2012). Le problème des métaux et des terres rares.

Description: Les ressources naturelles sont source de dynamisme industriel pour les pays producteurs tandis que les pays consommateurs sont rentrés dans une consommation compétitive ...

Idea Network

Description: Idea networking is a qualitative means of undertaking a cluster analysis or concept mapping of any collection of statements. Networking lists of statement acts to reduce them into a handful of clusters or categories. The statements might be sourced from interviews, text, websites, focus groups, SWOT analysis or community consultation. Idea networking is inductive, as it does not assume any prior classification system to cluster the statements.

Material and Substance Flow Analysis (M/SFA)

Description: Description of the method of Material and Substance Flow Analysis (M/SFA).

Social Licence to Operate and Corporate Social Responsibility

Description: SLO or Social Licence to Operate is the on-going approval or acceptance given by a community for a project to operate or continue to operate. CSR or Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept whereby enterprises integrate social and environmental concerns into their mainstream business operations.

Major metals and their companion metals metallogeny. The so-called ‘by-products’

Description: Mineral deposits frequently consist of a complex assemblage of major metals. Mining co-products and by-products are materials extracted in addition to the primary commodity. These may have some inherent economic value themselves.

Genius Forecasting Method

Description: The method is based on a combination of intuition, insight, and luck. Psychics and crystal ball readers are the most extreme case of genius forecasting. Their forecasts are based exclusively on intuition.

Characteristic Analysis-1981: Final Program and a Possible Discovery

Description: McCammon R.B., Botbol J.M., Sinding-Larsen R., Bowen R.W. (1983). Characteristic Analysis-1981: Final Program and a Possible Discovery.

Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA)

Description: Description of the method of Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA).

JRC Raw Materials Information System (RMIS)

Description: The European Commission's (EC) Raw Materials Information System (RMIS) is developed by the Directorate-General (DG) Joint Research Centre (JRC) in cooperation with the DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROWTH). The RMIS is the Commission’s reference web-based knowledge platform on non-fuel, non-agricultural raw materials from primary and secondary sources. This section provides an overview of the European raw materials context, the policy mandate that underlies the development of the RMIS, its goal and scope.

Critical Metals in the Path towards the Decarbonisation of the EU Energy Sector

Description: Moss R.L., Tzimas E., Willis P., Arendorf J., Tercero Espinoza L. et al. (2013). Critical Metals in the Path towards the Decarbonisation of the EU Energy Sector. Assessing Rare Metals as Supply-Chain Bottlenecks in Low-Carbon Energy Technologies

Remote Sensing for Mineral Exploration

Description: This factsheet covers different types of remote sensing technology, from satellite to airborne methods, and how this data can aid in mineral reconnaissance and dealing with environmental hazards associated with mining. How different types of mineralisation (i.e. oxides vs clays) are detected by different remote sensing techniques are discussed, as are the downstream processing techniques that can be applied to primary data.

Types of drilling in mining

Description: Drilling activities to raw materials achievement

Mineral deposit models

Description: Cox D.P., Singer D.A. (1986). Mineral deposit models.

Bastein et al. (2013), Opportunities for circular economy in the Netherlands

Description: This report analyses the opportunities and obstacles that will present themselves as the Netherlands moves towards a more circular economy. It proposes a number of actions that can be taken, particularly by the government, to accelerate this process. The concept of a circular economy refers to an economic and industrial system that is based on the reusability of products and raw materials, and the restorative capacity of natural resources

The Future Wheels

Description: The Futures wheel is a method for graphical visualization of direct and indirect future consequences of a particular change or development. It is closely related to ‘idea networking’, being a kind of structured ‘brainstorming’.

2D Predictivity Mapping

Description: Predictivity (or prospectivity) mapping: a way to reduce the exploration phase, make it more efficient and less intrusive and to discover more rapidly mineral deposits. An overview based on E.J.M. Carranza’synthesis (2011).

BioMinE – Integrated project for the development of biotechnology for metal-bearing materials in Europe

Description: Morin D., Lips A., Pinches T., Huisman J., Frias C., Norberg A., Forssberg E. (2006). BioMinE – Integrated project for the development of biotechnology for metal-bearing materials in Europe.

Raw Materials Foresight Guide

Description: This Factsheet summarises the MICA Project Deliverable 5.5 “Raw Materials Foresight Guide”. It was developed from a comprehensive review of foresight methodologies and past raw materials foresight case studies. It suggests a framework for assessing forward-looking questions and needs as well as guidelines for conducting foresight studies in the raw materials sector.

Criticality of mineral raw materials

Description: A review of the criteria that make some mineral raw materials critical. Based on a publication of the National Research Council of the National Academies (2007) and on the POLINARES project (2010-2012).

Kimberley Process

Description: The Kimberley Process (KP) is a commitment to remove conflict diamonds from the global supply chain. Today, participants actively prevent 99.8% of the worldwide trade.

Resource Efficiency

Description: Resource efficiency is a policy oriented concept. Resource efficiency means using the Earth's limited resources in a sustainable manner while minimising impacts on the environment. It allows us to create more with less and to deliver greater value with less input (definition EU). It is a concept linked to « decoupling » : a continued economic development while reducing environmental pressure. It has been adopted internationally as a development direction, by the UN, the OECD and the EU. It is also a concept that is embraced by national governments, as well as by businesses. There is a strong link with the concept of eco-efficiency.

Raw material 'criticality'—sense or nonsense?

Description: Frenzel M., Kullik J., Reuter M.A., Gutzmer J. (2017). Raw material 'criticality'—sense or nonsense?

DPSIR Framework

Description: The analysis of Drivers, Pressures, Status (of the environment), Indicators to measure the efficacy of (policy) Responses (to environmental etc. impacts) is a form of systems analysis. It can provide the logical framework for scenario analyses and quantitative models.

Joint propagation and exploitation of probabilistic and possibilistic information in risk assessment models

Description: Baudrit, C., Dubois, D., Guyonnet, D. (2006). Joint propagation and exploitation of probabilistic and possibilistic information in risk assessment models.

Compensation concept

Description: The compensation concept is a tool which can be included into mining development plans and help companies maintain constructive relations with the local community.

2D geological mapping (regional vs. detailed; purely geological vs. mining oriented)

Description: The 2D graphical presentation of geological observations and interpretations is called a geological map. These geological maps are often the first aim when exploring an area for either scientific or exploration purposes. It helps in creating either a basic or a detailed understanding of the area, depending on the objective.

DERA Report 2016: Rohstoffe fur Zukunftstechnologien 2016

Description: Marscheider-Weidemann, F., Langkau, S., Hummen, T., Erdmann, L., Tercero Espinoza, L., Angerer, G., Marwede, M. & Benecke, S. (2016). Rohstoffe fur Zukunftstechnologien 2016: DERA Rohstoffinformationen 28:353 S., Berlin. In this revision paper ‘Raw materials for Emerging technologies 2016’, 42 technologies were considered in total, of which 32 were updated and 10 newly selected. Based on these analyses, scenarios were constructuted of the raw material demand for these technologies in the year 2035.

Mines closure strategy

Description: Pavlović V. and Šubaranović T. (2012). Mines closure strategy.

Largest Mineral Deposits of the World

Description: “Largest Mineral Deposits of the World” Navigasig CD‐ROM: a Synthesis on Metallogeny of Large and Superlarge Mineral Deposits. A digital synthesis elaborated by the Russian-French metallogenic Laboratory in Moscow (2008).

Cost of substitution (Importance for industry/Substit.)

Description: The substitute performance and substitute cost are incorporated in one single parameter called Substitute Cost Performance (SCP). The cost and performance elements are used for estimating the SCP sub-component using an evaluation matrix: • Substitute material technical performance and functionality in comparison to that of the candidate material within given application; • Substitute material cost in comparison to the cost of the candidate material within given application.

Energy Transition

Description: Energy transition is a concept that is widely accepted in society, in circles of science, business, government and citizens alike. It is viewed as a necessary step towards solving the global climate change problem. It is now seen as an unavoidable development. The energy transition is relevant for all aspects of our (physical) economy. The specific significance for mining and minerals is that renewable energy technologies generally have a higher demand for metals per produced unit of useful energy. As a result of the energy transition, therefore, the demand for both bulk and specialty metals is expected to increase.

Geological Maps

Description: This factsheet describes the principals and processes of geological mapping. The different types and end uses of geological maps are discussed, as are the input datasets required. The difficulties of association errors and uncertainties with these conceptual models are also considered

Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries

Description: European Commission (2006). Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC - Statement by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission.

Environmental Impact Assessment EIA

Description: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a study of the expected effects of a proposed project, plan or program on the environment, including quarrying and mining activity.

Substitute production (Supply risk/Substitution)

Description: The Substitute Production (SP) parameter reflects the market size (global production data) of the candidate critical raw material compared to that of the substitute material. Only substitutes that are available in sufficient quantities in terms of annual production are considered a potential reducing factor for the supply risk, while substitutes produced in lower quantities will not change the risk.

Habib, K., Hamelin, L., Wenzel. H. 2016. A dynamic perspective of the geopolitical supply risk of metals

Description: Metals are distributed in the earth's crust in varying amounts and ore concentrations, implying that some countries have more metal resources than others. This inequality in geological resource distribution may lead to potential constraints and bottlenecks of a steady resource supply. In the context of strategic planning and innovation, and in scientific literature, this aspect is often referred to as geopolitical supply risk. In the past few decades, cobalt crisis, the oil embargo, and the more recent Rare Earth Elements (REEs) issue are the best examples regarding the geopolitical supply risk of mineral resources. The aim of this study is to present a historical overview of the development in geopolitical supply risk of 52 metals during the past two decades and to support an assessment of such risk in the future, i.e. 2050.

National Research Council of the National Academies. 2007. Minerals, critical minerals, and the US economy. 159 pp.

Description: If the supply of any given mineral were to become restricted, consumers and sectors of the U.S. economy could be significantly affected. Risks to minerals supplies can include a sudden increase in demand or the possibility that natural ores can be exhausted or become too difficult to extract. Minerals are more vulnerable to supply restrictions if they come from a limited number of mines, mining companies, or nations. Baseline information on minerals is currently collected at the federal level, but no established methodology has existed to identify potentially critical minerals. This book develops such a methodology and suggests an enhanced federal initiative to collect and analyze the additional data needed to support this type of tool.

Directive 2014/52/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014

Description: Directive 2014/52/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment Text with EEA relevance

Critical Raw Materials List - 2017

Description: COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS on the 2017 list of Critical Raw Materials for the EU. COM/2017/0490 final.

Primary mineral Resource Data

Description: Primary mineral Resource Data (to include metals)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Description: Description of the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

LCA of metals: a scientific synthesis

Description: In the article ‘Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis’(Nuss et al., 2014) extensive information is assembled on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and the interconnectedness is illustrated of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. It is shown that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are fo

A fuzzy constraint-based approach to data reconciliation in material flow analysis

Description: Dubois, D., Fargier, H., Guyonnet, D., Ababou, M. 2014. A fuzzy constraint-based approach to data reconciliation in material flow analysis.

Reconciliation in Material Flow Analysis

Description: The problem of balancing flows and stocks in material flow analysis when there is conflicting input information.

Risk-informed decision-making in the presence of epistemic uncertainty

Description: Dubois, D., Guyonnet, D. (2011). Risk-informed decision-making in the presence of epistemic uncertainty.

Substitution (Importance for industry)

Description: In the revised methodology for criticality assessment, the availability of substitutes is considered as a reducing element in both the economic importance (SIEI) and the supply risk (SISR) dimensions. The assessment only takes into account the proven substitutes that are readily available today and able to reduce the consequences of a disruption and/or influence the risk of a disruption.

The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction

Description: Hastie T., Tibshirani R., Friedman J. (2009). The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction.

ENVIREE H2020 project website on REE extraction

Description: Environmentally friendly and efficient methods for extraction of rare earth elements (REE) from secondary sources.

Enetjarn et al. (2015), Environmental compensation - Key conditions for increased and cost effective application

Description: This report for the Nordic Council of Ministers provides decision-makers at the national level in Nordic countries with an overview of key conditions for increased, flexible and cost-effective application of compensation and outlines of potential frameworks.

Stochastic and epistemic uncertainty propagation in LCA

Description: Clavreul, J., Guyonnet, D., Tonini, D., Christensen, T. H. (2013). Stochastic and epistemic uncertainty propagation in LCA.

SWOT analysis

Description: An analyis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) is performed in a systematic way, categorising internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats). A SWOT analysis as such is not used to elucidate possible futures, but will help to assess ways of action and trajectories proposed as an output from other methods.

Metallogenic Map

Description: Metallogenic Map of Albania in scale 1:200000

Mineral Resources and Reserves Estimation

Description: This factsheets clearly defines the meanings of resources and reserves and discusses how exploration and mining companies calculate these figures. The basic geostatistical principles and process that are used in calculating these figures are covered, as are the different types of input data that are required for these methods.

Mind-mapping

Description: Mind-mapping is one of the many methods of visualising the relationships between a large number of entities and factors by means of graphical representation in a tree-like diagram. A mind-map can be the outcome of a structured group brainstorming exercise, but can also be used by individuals to structure thoughts.

Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility

Description: Zadeh, L. (1978). Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility.

Production concentration

Description: The supply of critical and some non-critical raw materials to the EU is highly concentrated in a few non-EU countries that often show low levels of governance. Because the EU is highly import-dependent for certain raw materials this may lead to unexpected supply disruptions and thus put the EU’s security of supply at risk.

Substitute coproduction (Supply risk/Substitution)

Description: Co-/By-production of the substitute materials is a new element that is considered in the revised criticality methodology. For candidate materials, such as minor metals (REE, In, Ga, Ge etc.) it could be a significant constraint on the immediate supply of these materials. Co-production dynamics is considered also in the criticality methodologies of USA (US Critical Materials Institute) as one of the risk factors, as well as Japan (JOGMEC) in the supply risk component.

Mineral deposits of public importance: the MINATURA2020 Approach

Description: The concept of ‘Deposit of public importance’, i.e., mineral deposits for which information demonstrates that sustainable exploitation could provide economic, social or other benefit to the EU, or a Member State, or a region... The MINATURA2020 appro

CEReS, the European project to create value from waste

Description: CEReS, the European project to create value from waste.

EU-FP6 Bioshale Project – Executive Summary of the Second Year

Description: EU-FP6 Bioshale Project – Executive Summary of the Second Year.

EU-CRMKDP: European Union Critical Raw Materials Knowledge Data Platform

Description: EU-CRMKDP: the European Union Critical Raw Materials Knowledge Data Platform, created in the frame of the H2020 SCRREEN project.

Hydrogeological Map of Albania in scale 1:200000

Description: Hydrogeological Map of Albania in scale 1:200000

Agent-based modelling (ABM) method

Description: Agent-based modelling (ABM) is used to model the behavior of mineral raw materials players (or agents, e.g., countries or firms…) in order to know how they should individually or collectively react regarding any events (a price increasing, a mining firm closing, an export restriction policy by a producing country …) that may happen at different stages of the value-chain and at any scales of the market.

Geochemical Mapping for Mineral Exploration

Description: This factsheet describes how geochemical mapping is used to explore for economic minerals. The basic geostatistical steps used to interpret raw geochemical data to create geochemical maps are discussed along with potential errors and uncertainty.

Morphological Analysis Method

Description: Morphological Analysis originated in strategic planning and is a normative forecasting method that starts with defining a ‘future’ and then seeks to identify the circumstances, actions, technologies, etc. required to arrive at it.

CHROMIC H2020 project website on mineral processing

Description: Efficient mineral processing and hydrometallurgical recovery of byproduct metals from low-grade metal containing secondary raw materials..

Import dependence

Description: The EU is highly dependent on imports of several metal ores and natural rubber from international markets. Conversely, the EU is largely self-sufficient for construction materials, several industrial minerals and industrial roundwood.

Mancini, L., Benini, L., Sala, S. 2016. Characterization of raw materials based on supply risk indicators for Europe

Description: In this paper, the authors first explore how resource criticality could be interpreted, taking into account a wider perspective and a multidimensional concept. This includes the consideration of environmental and depletion aspects, in addition to the dominant interpretation, based on economic and geopolitical considerations. The authors then focus on the economic dimension of the resource criticality and propose the integration of this aspect in LCA through the use of characterization factors (CFs) based on the supply risk factors for Europe. Four different methodological options for resource security CFs are tested in the impact assessment of 50 processes and products.

EEA – Data and maps for protected areas

Description: EEA – Data and maps for protected areas.

Techniques for solving industrial nonlinear data reconciliation problems

Description: Kelly, J.D. 2004. Techniques for solving industrial nonlinear data reconciliation problems.

Imprecise probabilities in engineering analyses

Description: Beer, M., Ferson, S., Kreinovich, V. (2013). Imprecise probabilities in engineering analyses.

Mine closure and completion

Description: Australian Government (2006). Mine closure and completion.

Lisitsin, V. el. 2014. Mossman orogenic gold province in north Queensland, Australia: regional metallogenic controls and undiscovered gold endowment

Description: The Hodgkinson and Broken River provinces of the Mossman Orogen in north Queensland host numerous orogenic gold deposits and still remain under-explored. This paper discusses regional metallogenic controls and results of a probabilistic quantitative assessment of undiscovered gold potential in the region

Panorama of the European Mineral Resources Industry

Description: An overview of the European Mineral Resources Industry.

OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas

Description: OECD (2013): OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas: Second Edition, OECD Publishing.

Supply risk, an overview

Description: Supply risk defines the potential of an interruption in the availability of a particular mineral or material at a particular point in time or over a period of time. The risk can have both a material and a monetary dimension, e.g. no physical availability and/ or availability at unanticipated high prices.

The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium

Description: Dill H.G. (2010). The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium

What is the Social Licence to Operate (SLO)?

Description: The social licence to operate (SLO) refers to the level of acceptance or approval by local communities and stakeholders of mining companies and their operations. The concept has evolved fairly recently from the broader and more established notion of “Corporate Social Responsibility” and is based on the idea that mining companies need not only government permission [or permits] but also “social permission” to conduct their business.

Conflict Minerals

Description: In general, conflict minerals are regarded as minerals (and ores, concentrates, metals) from politically unstable regions, that are mined, controlled or traded to directly or indirectly add to the financing of conflicts.

GISCO

Description: GISCO: Geographical information system of the Commission (with hydrography, cities, population, infrastuctures...)

HHI indexes (global and EU)

Description: In the formula to calculate the Supply Risk, HHI (Herfindahl Hirschman Index) is used as a proxy for country concentration. HHI is then combined with WGI, which is is the scaled World Governance Index used as a proxy for country governance. HHI of raw materials supply can be analysed in terms of global supply as well as in terms of supply to the EU.

Directive 2014/52/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014

Description: Directive 2014/52/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment Text with EEA relevance

Back-casting

Description: Back-casting is a method to develop normative scenarios and explore their feasibility and implications. It is a tool which connects desirable long-term future scenarios to the present situation by means of a participatory process.

Machacek, E., Richter, J.L., Lane, R. 2017. Governance and Risk-Value Constructions in Closing Loops of Rare Earth Elements in Global Value Chains

Description: This article addresses a research gap on the challenges—specifically risk and value—connected to realizing the potential for closing loops for rare earth elements (REE). The authors develop an analytical framework from conceptual elements of the global value chain (GVC) framework and the relational theory of risk to examine several empirical REE industry cases for loop closure. The aim of the paper is to identify how risk–value relationships are constructed by different actors as governance structures form in transactions prior to price setting and how these have impacts on the closure of REE loops. Often, REE loops are not closed, and the authors find that constructions of the risk–value relationship by industrial actors and by government agencies are unstable as they pursue different motivations, consequently hindering REE loop closure in GVCs.

Cross-impact analysis (CIA)

Description: Cross-impact analysis (CIA) is a methodology developed originally by Theodore Gordon and Olaf Helmer in 1966 to help determine how relationships between events would impact resulting events and reduce uncertainty in the future. This group of methods aims to monitor the impact of interactions between a set of projections, when those interactions may not have been taken into consideration when individual futures were produced.

CRM end uses

Description: CRM end uses are available in raw materials factsheets

Minerals4EU Foresight Studies

Description: The EU-FP7 Minerals4EU project published several foresight studies whic are public and available on its European Union Minerals Knowledge Data Platform (the EU-MKDP - http://minerals4eu.brgm-rec.fr/). This includes: (1) Foresight Study- Topic Report I: European Raw Material Potential, (2) Foresight Study- Thematic Report II: Legislative and governmental challenges with regard to European mineral raw material deposits, (3) Foresight Study- Thematic Report III: Societal challenges of mineral raw material deposits accessibility, (4) Foresight study- Thematic Report IV: Secondary Raw Materials (Including Mine Wastes) and (5) Foresight Study- Thematic Report V: Developments on the raw material markets. Several case studies are also available at http://minerals4eu.brgm-rec.fr/search/site/m4eu-foresight.

SNL Metals & Mining

Description: SNL Metals & Mining is the most trusted source of global mining information and analysis with more than three decades of providing global insights and intelligence.

Polinares - EU policy on mineral resources - Summary of project results published

Description: List of project results available from the project website.