Knowledge Base Inventory

Knowledge Base Inventory lists all relevant methods & tools, data & portals, articles and reports, documentation, and legislation that the MICA Knowledge Base offers. You can filter the inventory using the MICA domain concepts, list of commodities, and others.

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Different methods are needed to propagate ignorance and variability

Description: Ferson, S. and Ginzburg, L. (1996). Different methods are needed to propagate ignorance and variability.

Guidelines for Preparing Mine Closure Plans

Description: Australian government (2015). Guidelines for Preparing Mine Closure Plans.

Serious Gaming Method

Description: A ‘serious’ game is a competitive exercise between two or more parties that has pre-determined objectives and that evolves according to a set of rules, akin to a game of chess. The players introduce intuition and psychology and thus a stochastic element into the decision-making process.

Cryogenic ball milling. A key for elemental analysis of plastic-rich automotive shredder residue

Description: End-of-life vehicles have become an environmental and sustainability issue in most developed countries, and require sophisticated organic- and inorganic-elemental analyses to evaluate the efficiency of post-shredder technologies applied to automotive shredder residue. The difficulties of milling such heterogeneous material, especially when plastic-rich, have to be overcome to allow such chemical analyses.

ANR EXTRADE project website (Recovery of REE from permanent magnets in WEEE)

Description: Le projet EXTRADE a pour objectif de développer de nouvelles filières de valorisation des aimants permanents à terres rares (APTR) présents dans les Déchets des Equipements Electriques et Electroniques (D3E or WEEE) en ciblant les 3 types d’équipements que sont i) les disques durs d’ordinateurs, ii) les haut-parleurs des matériels audio et vidéo et iii) les petits moteurs électriques présents dans les TIC (Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication) et les PAM (Petits Appareils Managers).

Critical Raw Materials Factsheets

Description: Detailed factsheets of the 2017 CRM list

Regional Heavy Mineral Sampling

Description: Heavy mineral sampling is the process of collecting that part of a sample medium that has the highest specific gravity. Regional studies are conducted as part of geochemical prospecting programmes in mineral exploration, in orientation and other studies.

Barteková, E. and Kemp, R. 2016. National strategies for securing a stable supply of rare earths in different world regions.

Description: The present paper explains why different world regions responded differently to the global problem of securing stable supply of critical minerals, in particular of rare earths. The paper is based on a comparative political economy framework and examines the extent to which distinct national policy styles, national interests, resource endowment and historical experience in tackling supply risk shaped the different policy choices. The overall findings show that despite their similar objectives, strategies undertaken by various regions tend to differ in their foci. Whereas Europe opts for a policy dialogue with resource-rich countries, Japan and the United States have a more hands-on approach in research and development initiatives. Australia's and China's policies instead, focus on development of domestic mining activities and on resource protection.

Non-energy, non-agriculture raw materials production: data to monitor the sector’s water use and emissions to water

Description: Water is an essential resource in the operation and sustainability of facilities producing raw materials, which is used and impacted in multiple ways. Therefore, there is a need for sound data to monitor the EU sector water performance and its pressures on the environment from a quantitative and qualitative point of view. This study assesses available water data for a well-informed EU raw materials policy which covers the extraction of non-fuel, non-agricultural raw materials. In this study, EU available national level data on water use and water pollution were assessed. We found that official records are limited for a comprehensive assessment of the sector, and accessible water accounting by the industry is poor.

Scenario Development Method

Description: Trend scenario development is a common tool used by governments and their supporting agencies. A key aspect is making rational and well-founded assumptions that have to be clearly documented. The purpose is to deduct envelopes for futures, based on the extrapolation and aggregation of single variables.

Criticality on the international scene: Quo vadis?

Description: Dewulf J., Blengini G.A., Pennington D., Nuss P., Nassar N.T. (2016). Criticality on the international scene: Quo vadis?

Recovery of high-grade iron compounds from slag by enhanced magnetic separation techniques

Description: From this investigation, two flow-sheets of treatment of LD slag are suggested to recover high grade iron material for recycling in metallurgical processes. Calcium and silicon oxide rich product will be directed to the cement industry.

Substitute criticality (Supply risk/Substitution)

Description: It is important to assess the criticality of the substitute itself. If a substitute material is already critical, it might not be readily available as a substitute option.

Raw Materials Information System, Air pollution

Description: Emissions of pollutants from the raw materials industry may occur across the entire value chain: during land clearing, mining activities, transport of materials, burning of fuels, industrial processing, manufacturing of intermediate and final products, and waste management. This section provides an overview with a focus on data on emissions of particulate matter and non-methane volatile organic compounds.

Geological Methods in Mineral Exploration and Mining.

Description: This practical step-by-step guide describes the key geological field techniques needed by today's exploration geologists involved in the search for metallic deposits. The techniques described are fundamental to the collection, storage and presentation of geological data and their use to locate ore. This book explains the various tasks which the exploration geologist is asked to perform in the sequence in which they might be employed in an actual exploration project. Hints and tips are give. The steps are illustrated with numerous examples drawn from real projects on which the author has worked. The book emphasizes traditional skills and shows how they can be combined effectively with modern technological approaches.

SEA Directive 2001/42/EC

Description: The SEA Directive (Directive 2001/42/EC) transposes the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) adopted by an Extraordinary meeting of the Parties to the Espoo Convention (held on 21 May 2003 during the Ministerial Environment for Europe Conference in Kyiv) in the EU legislation. The Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment augments the Espoo Convention by ensuring that individual Parties integrate environmental assessment into their plans and programmes at the earliest stages, and thus help in laying down the groundwork for sustainable development. The Protocol entered into force on 11 July 2010. The EU ratified the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment on 21 November 2008.

SCRREEN D5.1: CRM Profiles

Description: Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 SCRREEN project

Commodity end uses

Description: Commodity end uses are available in raw materials factsheets

Geopolitical risk

Description: The supply of critical and some non-critical raw materials to the EU is highly concentrated in a few non-EU countries that often show low levels of governance. Because the EU is highly import-dependent for certain raw materials this may lead to unexpected supply disruptions and thus put the EU’s security of supply at risk.

Footprint methods

Description: Description of the Footprint methods.

LCA, LCI, LCIA, LCC: What’s the Difference?

Description: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a multi-step procedure for calculating the lifetime environmental impact of a product or service. LCI is the life cycle inventory, which is the data collection portion of LCA. LCI is the straight-forward accounting of everything involved in the “system” of interest. LCIA is life cycle impact assessment, the “what does it mean” step. In LCIA, the inventory is analyzed for environmental impact. LCI and LCA should not be confused with life cycle costing. LCC is another life cycle approach (i.e, cradle to grave) but it looks at the direct monetary costs involved with a product or service and not environmental impact…

Recycling rate

Description: Recycling as a source of secondary raw materials contributes to the security of supply and helps advance materials circularity in the EU economy. In the 2016 Raw Materials Scoreboard, in the Circular Econom y monitoring framework and in the context of the 2017 list of critical raw materials (CRM) for the EU, the principal recycling indicator is the end-of-life recycling input rate (EOL-RIR). The EOL-RIR equals the ‘input of secondary material to the EU from old scrap to the total input of materials (primary and secondary) and is regarded as a robust measure of recycling’s contribution to meeting materials demand.

Ecoinvent (environmental data)

Description: The ecoinvent database provides well documented process data for thousands of products, helping to make truly informed choices about their environmental impact. The latest version, ecoinvent 3.4, builds on all previous versions of the database.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Description: The IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. Manuals, guides, and other material on statistical practices at the IMF, in member countries, and of the statistical community at large are also available.

Economy Wide Material Flow Accounting

Description: Description of the method of Economy Wide Material Flow Accounting (EW-MFA).ded

System Dynamic Modelling

Description: System dynamics (SD) is a computer-aided method and a quantitative modeling technique. It could be used for describing, modeling, simulating and analyzing dynamically complex (non-linear) issues.

Wild-Cards and Weak Signals

Description: The term ‘wild card’ is used for low-probability events that have a high impact and that were not expected to occur. Wildcard events take the society concerned by surprise and may profoundly change it.

EGDI

Description: EGDI is EuroGeoSurveys’ European Geological Data Infrastructure. It provides access to Pan-European and national geological datasets and services from the Geological Survey Organizations of Europe.

Recycling of automotive shredder residues (ASR) in iron- and steelmaking furnaces

Description: European regulations are about to impose a minimum 95% recycling of end of life vehicles with a 10% maximum energy recovery (Directive 2000/53/EC). Current 75% recycling requires the development of innovative processing for treating certain heterogeneous streams. In particular, the recycling of light post-shredder technology particles (fluff) in iron- and steelmaking is an interesting avenue to explore. More specifically, the use of iron oxide rich streams for their iron content [blast furnaces (BFs)] and plastic rich streams as a reducing agent and/or alternative fuel (electric arc furnaces and BFs) is an industrial challenge. This article describes the preliminary multitechnical characterisation results of streams from an industrial site and discusses the potential for recycling according to the nature of the crippling impurities [polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and metals]...

Geological Map of Albania

Description: Geological Map of Albania in scale 1:200000.

Welcome to BioMineWiki- the free and live knowledge base focused on biohydrometallurgy

Description: Welcome to BioMineWiki- the free and live knowledge base focused on biohydrometallurgy.

Cell Based Associations: A procedure for considering scarce and mixed mineral occurrences in predictive mapping

Description: Tourlière B., Pakyuz-Charrier E., Cassard D., Barbanson L., Gumiaux C. (2015). Cell Based Associations: A procedure for considering scarce and mixed mineral occurrences in predictive mapping.

Limitation of the mining waste production

Description: The volume of mining waste produced (waste-rocks and tailings) depends on the geological characteristics of the ore body, the mineral being mined, the type of mining (underground versus open pit) and the type of mineral processing and as well as the size of the operation…

BGR Geoviewer (UK)

Description: The BGR Geoviewer allows the user to visualize and to combine BGR’s web map services (WMS) based on data of various disciplines. The info (i) for every map contains a link to the Produktcenter, where the relevant geodata are available for download. The offered map data covers Germany and the data are generalized for different scale intervals between 1:200 000 and 1:5 000 000.

Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis (Nuss & Eckelman, 2014)

Description: We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest...

MINATURA2020 – Mineral Deposits of Public Importance (a)

Description: MINATURA2020 (2015). MINATURA2020 – Mineral Deposits of Public Importance. Press release, Brussels, 12 June 2015.

Mineral Certification at the BGR

Description: Mineral Certification at the BGR covers due diligence and ASM formalization in the Great Lakes Region, ASM conflict risks and timeline of relevant BGR projects.

The Feminisation of Mining

Description: This paper argues that feminisation is beginning to occur in the mining industry, a process associated with an expanded notion of mining as a livelihood in the radically changing political economy of extractive industries.

Land use maps of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) type

Description: Land use maps of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) type.

Biodiversity Information System for Europe

Description: Biodiversity Information System for Europe.

European Commission, Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs, Ecodesign

Description: There is world-wide demand for more efficient products to reduce energy and resource consumption. The EU legislation on ecodesign and energy labelling is an effective tool for improving the energy efficiency of products. It helps eliminate the least performing products from the market, significantly contributing to the EU’s 2020 energy efficiency objective. It also supports industrial competitiveness and innovation by promoting the better environmental performance of products throughout the internal market.

Mine closure process (overview of different phases and actions)

Description: What happens to mine sites after a mine is closed? An overview of the different phases and actions of the mine closure process.

Mining Wastes Directive

Description: Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC - Statement by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission.

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92 /43 /EEC of 21 May 1992

Description: COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92 /43 /EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora

Value added

Description: Information and data on Value added related to raw materials is available in raw materials factsheets

Geostatistical Estimates

Description: Geostatistical estimation is a technique based on probability theory that is used to compute regionalized variables, such as the metal content or grade in a deposit.

Raw Materials Scoreboard

Description: The Raw Materials Scoreboard is a cornerstone of the European Union Raw Materials Knowledge Base (EURMKB) and an integral and permanent part of the Raw Materials Information System. The RM Scoreboard presents the best available data and indicators on the main challenges of raw materials production in the EU, along the entire raw materials value chain. The EC released the first edition of the RM Scoreboard in July 2016, and biannual updates are foreseen.

Three-part quantitative assessment method

Description: The three-part method is used in quantitative assessments of undiscovered mineral resources. It produces probabilistic estimates of the amount of metals and ore in undiscovered deposits of selected types

The African Mining Vision

Description: The African Mining Vision (2009): “Transparent, equitable and optimal exploitation of mineral resources to underpin broad-based sustainable growth and socio-economic development”

Sairinen et al.. (2012), Responsible mining: A toolkit for the prevention and mediation of conflicts

Description: This report provides essential lessons and guidance to companies and governments to reduce mining conflicts and to promote responsible mining. Interestingly, the toolkit highlights the fact that every mining challenge is very local but the critical issues related to responsible mining are inherently international

Characterization of raw materials based on supply risk indicators for Europe

Description: The concept of “resource criticality” has recently emerged as a policy priority and research subject, usually referred to the risk of supply disruption for mineral resources, due to economic and geopolitical reasons. Different methodologies for assessing critical raw materials (CRM) have been developed in governmental and research contexts, and the possibility of including the resource security aspect in life cycle assessment (LCA) has been claimed by different authors. The present paper aims at integrating CRM considerations in LCA in order to address socio-economic and strategic aspects related to resource use.

Density estimation for statistics and data analysis, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability

Description: Silverman B.W. (1986). Density estimation for statistics and data analysis, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability.

Biohydrometallurgy

Description: An industrial reality for the treatment of sulphidic ores, tailings and residues.

Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011

Description: Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment Text with EEA relevance

Mining for Closure, Policies and Guidelines for Sustainable Mining Practice and Closure of Mines

Description: United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Development Programme, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (2005). Mining for Closure, Policies and Guidelines for Sustainable Mining Practice and Closure of Mines.

Comparison of mathematical methods of potential modeling

Description: Schaeben H. (2011). Comparison of mathematical methods of potential modeling.

Life cycle indicators for resources, products and waste

Description: EC-JRC (2012) has developed a framework for life cycle based macro-level monitoring indicators which are intended to be used to assess the environmental impact of production, consumption and waste management in the EU27.

Critical Raw Materials

Description: Raw materials are crucial to Europe’s economy. They form a strong industrial base, producing a broad range of goods and applications used in everyday life and modern technologies. Reliable and unhindered access to certain raw materials is a growing concern within the EU and across the globe. To address this challenge, the European Commission has created a list of critical raw materials (CRMs) for the EU, which is subject to a regular review and update. CRMs combine raw materials of high importance to the EU economy and of high risk associated with their supply.

European Soil Data Centre, Soil contamination

Description: Soil contamination is the occurrence of pollutants in soil above a certain level causing a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions. Also, Soil Contamination can be considered as the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage tanks, application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. The occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage.

Delphi Surveys

Description: The Delphi method is based on structural surveys and makes use of information from the experience and knowledge of the participants, who are mainly experts. It, therefore, yields both qualitative and quantitative results and draws on exploratory, predictive even normative elements.

Classical Directive 2014/24/EU

Description: Directive 2014/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on public procurement and repealing Directive 2004/18/EC Text with EEA relevance.

Circular Economy

Description: A circular economy aims to keep products, components and materials in use, to prevent waste generation and avoid extracting virgin resources. It does so by a combination of reuse, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing and recycling, aiming at lengthening the life span of applications and keeping the materials in use even after the product life span has ended. The European Commission adopted an ambitious Circular Economy Package, which includes revised legislative proposals on waste to stimulate Europe's transition towards a circular economy which will boost global competitiveness, foster sustainable economic growth and generate new jobs. The European Commission and the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) jointly launched the European Circular Economy Stakeholder Platform. The European Circular Economy Stakeholder Platform will be a network of networks going beyond sectorial activities and highlighting cross-sector opportunities and challenges. The Platform will be a hub

Roskill

Description: Each of Roskill's international reports gives a comprehensive analysis of an individual metal or a mineral market. They cover world production and consumption, the operations of the major producers, end-use market applications, price trends, international trade patterns and forecasts for supply and demand, of over 40 metals and minerals.

The bioleaching of sulphide minerals with emphasis on copper sulphides — A review

Description: Watling H.R. (2006). The bioleaching of sulphide minerals with emphasis on copper sulphides — A review.

Importance for industry

Description: Why CRMs are Economically important? The importance of a raw material to the economy of the Union is assessed by the indicator Economic Importance (EI). This indicator relates to the potential consequences in the event of an inadequate supply of the raw material.

Groothuis F. (2016), New era. New plan. Europe. A fiscal strategy for an inclusive, circular economy, The Ex’tax Project

Description: This study by The Ex’tax Project in cooperation with Deloitte, EY, KPMG Meijburg and PwC examines the impact of a tax shift from labour to consumption and natural resource use. Cambridge Econometrics has modelled the impacts of a tax shift scenario in the period 2016-2020 in 27 Member States of the European Union using the E3ME macro-econometric model.

Social impact assessment in the mining sector: Review and comparison of indicators frameworks

Description: In various contexts, social impacts of mining are assessed with different sets of indicators and targets. This study presents a review of the associated literature, identify a list of typical social impacts occurring in the sector, and explore their geographical distribution. The list of identified impacts is compared against the indicators used for assessing and promoting sustainability in different contexts and at different scales.

SCRREEN D3.2: Identification and quantification of secondary CRM resources in Europe

Description: SCRREEN D3.2: Identification and quantification of secondary CRM resources in Europe

Life Cycle Assessment and criticality of raw materials: relationship and potential synergies

Description: The security of supply of raw materials is a policy priority for the European Union (EU). In this paper, different research activities undertaken by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC), Sustainability Assessment Unit, and related to Critical Raw Materials (CRM) are briefly described. The potential of Life Cycle Assessment for supporting resource policy needs in business and governance is discussed. Related research activities addressed in this paper include an analysis of impact assessment methods used for the assessment of resources; the Resource Life Cycle Indicators that provide insights into the total environmental pressures of the EU; the identification of potentially relevant requirements for product policies, and the results of the expert workshop “Security of supply and scarcity of raw materials”.

Julienne D. (2012). Le problème des métaux et des terres rares.

Description: Les ressources naturelles sont source de dynamisme industriel pour les pays producteurs tandis que les pays consommateurs sont rentrés dans une consommation compétitive ...

Social Licence to Operate and Corporate Social Responsibility

Description: SLO or Social Licence to Operate is the on-going approval or acceptance given by a community for a project to operate or continue to operate. CSR or Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept whereby enterprises integrate social and environmental concerns into their mainstream business operations.

Idea Network

Description: Idea networking is a qualitative means of undertaking a cluster analysis or concept mapping of any collection of statements. Networking lists of statement acts to reduce them into a handful of clusters or categories. The statements might be sourced from interviews, text, websites, focus groups, SWOT analysis or community consultation. Idea networking is inductive, as it does not assume any prior classification system to cluster the statements.

Material and Substance Flow Analysis (M/SFA)

Description: Description of the method of Material and Substance Flow Analysis (M/SFA).

Raw Materials Scoreboard 2018, WEEE management

Description: In Europe, almost 10 million tonnes of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) such as washing machines, computers, TV-sets, fridges and cell phones are put on the market every year, leading to a massive generation of waste. While WEEE may appear to be a small waste stream in terms of mass compared to other waste streams, the treatment of this waste is an important source of several valuable and critical raw materials that can be recycled.

Raw Materials Scoreboard 2018, Air pollutant emissions

Description: EU air quality policy aims to establish air quality targets and emission ceilings that are compatible with economic growth and sustainable development, and in line with relevant international conventions. To ensure that large industrial installations in sectors such as metals, minerals, paper and wood contribute to keeping emissions below binding limits, the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) requires the application of ‘Best Available Techniques’ (BATs). This content presents data on emissions of particulate matter emissions and volatile organic compounds by raw materials sector category over time.

Major metals and their companion metals metallogeny. The so-called ‘by-products’

Description: Mineral deposits frequently consist of a complex assemblage of major metals. Mining co-products and by-products are materials extracted in addition to the primary commodity. These may have some inherent economic value themselves.

Genius Forecasting Method

Description: The method is based on a combination of intuition, insight, and luck. Psychics and crystal ball readers are the most extreme case of genius forecasting. Their forecasts are based exclusively on intuition.

Characteristic Analysis-1981: Final Program and a Possible Discovery

Description: McCammon R.B., Botbol J.M., Sinding-Larsen R., Bowen R.W. (1983). Characteristic Analysis-1981: Final Program and a Possible Discovery.

Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA)

Description: Description of the method of Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA).

JRC Raw Materials Information System (RMIS)

Description: The European Commission's (EC) Raw Materials Information System (RMIS) is developed by the Directorate-General (DG) Joint Research Centre (JRC) in cooperation with the DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROWTH). The RMIS is the Commission’s reference web-based knowledge platform on non-fuel, non-agricultural raw materials from primary and secondary sources. This section provides an overview of the European raw materials context, the policy mandate that underlies the development of the RMIS, its goal and scope.

Critical Metals in the Path towards the Decarbonisation of the EU Energy Sector

Description: Moss R.L., Tzimas E., Willis P., Arendorf J., Tercero Espinoza L. et al. (2013). Critical Metals in the Path towards the Decarbonisation of the EU Energy Sector. Assessing Rare Metals as Supply-Chain Bottlenecks in Low-Carbon Energy Technologies

Remote Sensing for Mineral Exploration

Description: This factsheet covers different types of remote sensing technology, from satellite to airborne methods, and how this data can aid in mineral reconnaissance and dealing with environmental hazards associated with mining. How different types of mineralisation (i.e. oxides vs clays) are detected by different remote sensing techniques are discussed, as are the downstream processing techniques that can be applied to primary data.

Types of drilling in mining

Description: Drilling activities to raw materials achievement

Mineral deposit models

Description: Cox D.P., Singer D.A. (1986). Mineral deposit models.

Bastein et al. (2013), Opportunities for circular economy in the Netherlands

Description: This report analyses the opportunities and obstacles that will present themselves as the Netherlands moves towards a more circular economy. It proposes a number of actions that can be taken, particularly by the government, to accelerate this process. The concept of a circular economy refers to an economic and industrial system that is based on the reusability of products and raw materials, and the restorative capacity of natural resources

The Future Wheels

Description: The Futures wheel is a method for graphical visualization of direct and indirect future consequences of a particular change or development. It is closely related to ‘idea networking’, being a kind of structured ‘brainstorming’.

2D Predictivity Mapping

Description: Predictivity (or prospectivity) mapping: a way to reduce the exploration phase, make it more efficient and less intrusive and to discover more rapidly mineral deposits. An overview based on E.J.M. Carranza’synthesis (2011).

BioMinE – Integrated project for the development of biotechnology for metal-bearing materials in Europe

Description: Morin D., Lips A., Pinches T., Huisman J., Frias C., Norberg A., Forssberg E. (2006). BioMinE – Integrated project for the development of biotechnology for metal-bearing materials in Europe.

Raw Materials Foresight Guide

Description: This Factsheet summarises the MICA Project Deliverable 5.5 “Raw Materials Foresight Guide”. It was developed from a comprehensive review of foresight methodologies and past raw materials foresight case studies. It suggests a framework for assessing forward-looking questions and needs as well as guidelines for conducting foresight studies in the raw materials sector.

Criticality of mineral raw materials

Description: A review of the criteria that make some mineral raw materials critical. Based on a publication of the National Research Council of the National Academies (2007) and on the POLINARES project (2010-2012).

Kimberley Process

Description: The Kimberley Process (KP) is a commitment to remove conflict diamonds from the global supply chain. Today, participants actively prevent 99.8% of the worldwide trade.

SCRREEN D2.1: Report on the Current Use of Critical Raw Materials

Description: The purpose of this study is to review and map the current use of critical raw materials (CRMs) in the European Union. We do so for the list of materials identified as being critical by the European Commission in 2014. The synthesis of this work is presented in a table on pages 13, that specifies the use of 31 critical materials in various sectors and applications at the highest possible level of detail, based on a review of available studies. This economy-wide overview of CRM use is then complemented with a bottom-up perspective by addressing the material composition of products.

Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis

Description: We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest (...)

SCRREEN D4.3: Circular Economy and zero waste aspects and business models of production

Description: SCRREEN D4.3: Circular Economy and zero waste aspects and business models of production

Resource Efficiency

Description: Resource efficiency is a policy oriented concept. Resource efficiency means using the Earth's limited resources in a sustainable manner while minimising impacts on the environment. It allows us to create more with less and to deliver greater value with less input (definition EU). It is a concept linked to « decoupling » : a continued economic development while reducing environmental pressure. It has been adopted internationally as a development direction, by the UN, the OECD and the EU. It is also a concept that is embraced by national governments, as well as by businesses. There is a strong link with the concept of eco-efficiency.

Raw material 'criticality'—sense or nonsense?

Description: Frenzel M., Kullik J., Reuter M.A., Gutzmer J. (2017). Raw material 'criticality'—sense or nonsense?

DPSIR Framework

Description: The analysis of Drivers, Pressures, Status (of the environment), Indicators to measure the efficacy of (policy) Responses (to environmental etc. impacts) is a form of systems analysis. It can provide the logical framework for scenario analyses and quantitative models.

Joint propagation and exploitation of probabilistic and possibilistic information in risk assessment models

Description: Baudrit, C., Dubois, D., Guyonnet, D. (2006). Joint propagation and exploitation of probabilistic and possibilistic information in risk assessment models.

Compensation concept

Description: The compensation concept is a tool which can be included into mining development plans and help companies maintain constructive relations with the local community.

2D geological mapping (regional vs. detailed; purely geological vs. mining oriented)

Description: The 2D graphical presentation of geological observations and interpretations is called a geological map. These geological maps are often the first aim when exploring an area for either scientific or exploration purposes. It helps in creating either a basic or a detailed understanding of the area, depending on the objective.

DERA Report 2016: Rohstoffe fur Zukunftstechnologien 2016

Description: Marscheider-Weidemann, F., Langkau, S., Hummen, T., Erdmann, L., Tercero Espinoza, L., Angerer, G., Marwede, M. & Benecke, S. (2016). Rohstoffe fur Zukunftstechnologien 2016: DERA Rohstoffinformationen 28:353 S., Berlin. In this revision paper ‘Raw materials for Emerging technologies 2016’, 42 technologies were considered in total, of which 32 were updated and 10 newly selected. Based on these analyses, scenarios were constructuted of the raw material demand for these technologies in the year 2035.

Mines closure strategy

Description: Pavlović V. and Šubaranović T. (2012). Mines closure strategy.

Largest Mineral Deposits of the World

Description: “Largest Mineral Deposits of the World” Navigasig CD‐ROM: a Synthesis on Metallogeny of Large and Superlarge Mineral Deposits. A digital synthesis elaborated by the Russian-French metallogenic Laboratory in Moscow (2008).

Cost of substitution (Importance for industry/Substit.)

Description: The substitute performance and substitute cost are incorporated in one single parameter called Substitute Cost Performance (SCP). The cost and performance elements are used for estimating the SCP sub-component using an evaluation matrix: • Substitute material technical performance and functionality in comparison to that of the candidate material within given application; • Substitute material cost in comparison to the cost of the candidate material within given application.

Energy Transition

Description: Energy transition is a concept that is widely accepted in society, in circles of science, business, government and citizens alike. It is viewed as a necessary step towards solving the global climate change problem. It is now seen as an unavoidable development. The energy transition is relevant for all aspects of our (physical) economy. The specific significance for mining and minerals is that renewable energy technologies generally have a higher demand for metals per produced unit of useful energy. As a result of the energy transition, therefore, the demand for both bulk and specialty metals is expected to increase.

Geological Maps

Description: This factsheet describes the principals and processes of geological mapping. The different types and end uses of geological maps are discussed, as are the input datasets required. The difficulties of association errors and uncertainties with these conceptual models are also considered

Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries

Description: European Commission (2006). Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC - Statement by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission.

Environmental Impact Assessment EIA

Description: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a study of the expected effects of a proposed project, plan or program on the environment, including quarrying and mining activity.

Conflict Minerals and Conflict Diamonds

Description: RMIS page describing the issues of conflict minerals and conflict diamonds, and related policy initiatives to tackle this problem.

Substitute production (Supply risk/Substitution)

Description: The Substitute Production (SP) parameter reflects the market size (global production data) of the candidate critical raw material compared to that of the substitute material. Only substitutes that are available in sufficient quantities in terms of annual production are considered a potential reducing factor for the supply risk, while substitutes produced in lower quantities will not change the risk.

Habib, K., Hamelin, L., Wenzel. H. 2016. A dynamic perspective of the geopolitical supply risk of metals

Description: Metals are distributed in the earth's crust in varying amounts and ore concentrations, implying that some countries have more metal resources than others. This inequality in geological resource distribution may lead to potential constraints and bottlenecks of a steady resource supply. In the context of strategic planning and innovation, and in scientific literature, this aspect is often referred to as geopolitical supply risk. In the past few decades, cobalt crisis, the oil embargo, and the more recent Rare Earth Elements (REEs) issue are the best examples regarding the geopolitical supply risk of mineral resources. The aim of this study is to present a historical overview of the development in geopolitical supply risk of 52 metals during the past two decades and to support an assessment of such risk in the future, i.e. 2050.

National Research Council of the National Academies. 2007. Minerals, critical minerals, and the US economy. 159 pp.

Description: If the supply of any given mineral were to become restricted, consumers and sectors of the U.S. economy could be significantly affected. Risks to minerals supplies can include a sudden increase in demand or the possibility that natural ores can be exhausted or become too difficult to extract. Minerals are more vulnerable to supply restrictions if they come from a limited number of mines, mining companies, or nations. Baseline information on minerals is currently collected at the federal level, but no established methodology has existed to identify potentially critical minerals. This book develops such a methodology and suggests an enhanced federal initiative to collect and analyze the additional data needed to support this type of tool.

Social Licence to Operate (SLO)

Description: RMIS page describing the concept of ‘Social Licence to Operate’ (SLO). SLO refers to a local community’s acceptance or approval of a project or a company’s ongoing presence, beyond formal regulatory permitting processes (e.g. public hearing and rights for written interventions).

Directive 2014/52/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014

Description: Directive 2014/52/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment Text with EEA relevance

Critical Raw Materials List - 2017

Description: COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS on the 2017 list of Critical Raw Materials for the EU. COM/2017/0490 final.

Primary mineral Resource Data

Description: Primary mineral Resource Data (to include metals)

A fuzzy constraint-based approach to data reconciliation in material flow analysis

Description: Dubois, D., Fargier, H., Guyonnet, D., Ababou, M. 2014. A fuzzy constraint-based approach to data reconciliation in material flow analysis.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Description: Description of the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

LCA of metals: a scientific synthesis

Description: In the article ‘Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis’(Nuss et al., 2014) extensive information is assembled on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and the interconnectedness is illustrated of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. It is shown that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are fo

Reconciliation in Material Flow Analysis

Description: The problem of balancing flows and stocks in material flow analysis when there is conflicting input information.

SCRREEN D4.2: Production technologies of CRM from secondary resources

Description: SCRREEN D4.2: Production technologies of CRM from secondary resources

Risk-informed decision-making in the presence of epistemic uncertainty

Description: Dubois, D., Guyonnet, D. (2011). Risk-informed decision-making in the presence of epistemic uncertainty.

Substitution (Importance for industry)

Description: In the revised methodology for criticality assessment, the availability of substitutes is considered as a reducing element in both the economic importance (SIEI) and the supply risk (SISR) dimensions. The assessment only takes into account the proven substitutes that are readily available today and able to reduce the consequences of a disruption and/or influence the risk of a disruption.

The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction

Description: Hastie T., Tibshirani R., Friedman J. (2009). The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction.

ENVIREE H2020 project website on REE extraction

Description: Environmentally friendly and efficient methods for extraction of rare earth elements (REE) from secondary sources.

Enetjarn et al. (2015), Environmental compensation - Key conditions for increased and cost effective application

Description: This report for the Nordic Council of Ministers provides decision-makers at the national level in Nordic countries with an overview of key conditions for increased, flexible and cost-effective application of compensation and outlines of potential frameworks.

Stochastic and epistemic uncertainty propagation in LCA

Description: Clavreul, J., Guyonnet, D., Tonini, D., Christensen, T. H. (2013). Stochastic and epistemic uncertainty propagation in LCA.

SWOT analysis

Description: An analyis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) is performed in a systematic way, categorising internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats). A SWOT analysis as such is not used to elucidate possible futures, but will help to assess ways of action and trajectories proposed as an output from other methods.

Metallogenic Map

Description: Metallogenic Map of Albania in scale 1:200000

Mineral Resources and Reserves Estimation

Description: This factsheets clearly defines the meanings of resources and reserves and discusses how exploration and mining companies calculate these figures. The basic geostatistical principles and process that are used in calculating these figures are covered, as are the different types of input data that are required for these methods.

Mind-mapping

Description: Mind-mapping is one of the many methods of visualising the relationships between a large number of entities and factors by means of graphical representation in a tree-like diagram. A mind-map can be the outcome of a structured group brainstorming exercise, but can also be used by individuals to structure thoughts.

Conflict Minerals and Conflict Diamonds

Description: RMIS page describing the issue of conflict minerals and conflict diamonds and related policy initiatives

Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility

Description: Zadeh, L. (1978). Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility.

Raw Materials Information System, Water

Description: Water is an essential input to the economy and to life. Safeguarding its supply and quality is crucial for citizens and for the health of ecosystems. Water is also an essential input to the raw materials extractive and manufacturing industries, being used in ore processing, dust suppression, cooling processes, and as a material input for most industrial processes. Although water can be reused multiple times at facilities, some raw materials industries can be water-intensive, and this can significantly reduce water availability at the local level. In turn, water stress may put the security of supply of some raw materials at risk, when water supply for production is not guaranteed. Apart from water-volume related aspects, discharges from the raw materials industry and run-off from mining sites can affect the quality of water bodies and soils. Extractive practices in the seabed and deep sea can also impact coastal and marine ecosystems.

Production concentration

Description: The supply of critical and some non-critical raw materials to the EU is highly concentrated in a few non-EU countries that often show low levels of governance. Because the EU is highly import-dependent for certain raw materials this may lead to unexpected supply disruptions and thus put the EU’s security of supply at risk.

Substitute coproduction (Supply risk/Substitution)

Description: Co-/By-production of the substitute materials is a new element that is considered in the revised criticality methodology. For candidate materials, such as minor metals (REE, In, Ga, Ge etc.) it could be a significant constraint on the immediate supply of these materials. Co-production dynamics is considered also in the criticality methodologies of USA (US Critical Materials Institute) as one of the risk factors, as well as Japan (JOGMEC) in the supply risk component.

Mineral deposits of public importance: the MINATURA2020 Approach

Description: The concept of ‘Deposit of public importance’, i.e., mineral deposits for which information demonstrates that sustainable exploitation could provide economic, social or other benefit to the EU, or a Member State, or a region... The MINATURA2020 appro

CEReS, the European project to create value from waste

Description: CEReS, the European project to create value from waste.

Raw Materials Information System, Circular Economy monitoring

Description: In the transition to a more circular economy, monitoring the key trends and patterns is key to understand how the various elements of the circular economy are developing over time, to help identify success factors in Member States and to assess whether sufficient action has been taken. As committed in the Circular Economy Action Plan (2015), in January 2018 the European Commission has put forward a monitoring framework composed of a set of key indicators that capture the main elements of the circular economy (communication COM(2018)29 and its accompanying document SWD/2018/017). The Circular Economy Monitoring Framework draws upon and complements the existing Resources Efficiency Scoreboard and Raw Materials Scoreboard, which were developed in recent years by the Commission. The Circular Economy Monitoring Framework is presented on a dedicated Eurostat website, where all the underlying data are available and that will be kept up-to-date. In the following we give an overview of the C

EU-FP6 Bioshale Project – Executive Summary of the Second Year

Description: EU-FP6 Bioshale Project – Executive Summary of the Second Year.

EU-CRMKDP: European Union Critical Raw Materials Knowledge Data Platform

Description: EU-CRMKDP: the European Union Critical Raw Materials Knowledge Data Platform, created in the frame of the H2020 SCRREEN project.

Hydrogeological Map of Albania in scale 1:200000

Description: Hydrogeological Map of Albania in scale 1:200000